The Classical Humanist and Christian Worldviews

I was recently asked to explain the difference between the Christian and Classical Humanist worldviews. For the sake of brevity, the difference between the Christian and Classical Humanist worldviews is best understood by looking at the source of wisdom, moral authority and knowledge of right and wrong for each. Fundamentally, these two separate sources explain the major differences in the simplest terms. When one understands that the Christian looks to God, the Creator and sustainer, to find wisdom, morality, and to know right and wrong, and that the classical humanist looks to man and man's intellect alone to find and define these things, he instantly understands the contrasts between the two worldviews.

The simplicity of this can be seen by a quick glance at Augustine, a champion of Christianity and Socrates, a champion of the humanist tradition. Augustine and Christians believe that reason alone can not serve as a suitable guide in life. This is because any reasoning of man that is void of God's guidance is insufficient to guide men accurately. Lacking God's, Augustine would say, one could not attain true wisdom or free him from sin. Simply put, moral man is not moral enough. Whereas, Socrates and the classical humanist would maintain that wisdom could be found through man's intellect and defended rationally. For one group the source of wisdom is God. For the classical humanist the source of wisdom is man, himself.

Each view produces opposing outlooks in regards to one's view of his own life and importance, one's interpretation of history, one's future outlook, one's life pursuits and accomplishments, and one's dealings with fellow human beings. The classical humanist is concerned with a temporal, pragmatic life centered on himself and man in general, while the Christian is concerned with an eternal, morally acceptable life centered on God and man's devotion to God.

In the Bible, the Apostle Paul outlines beautifully the Christian's basic outlook on wisdom and God's role as its source and chief proliferator. Take a moment ad read 1Cor. 1: 18-2: 16. Take particular note of verses 1Cor. 1:22 and 25; 1Cor. 1: 27-29, and 1Cor. 2: 6 and 9-10, as they clearly display the contrast between the Christian worldview and the humanist worldview.

As a quick reading of these verses shows, for the Christian, God alone is the source of wisdom. He is the judge of human conduct, and all human thoughts and reasoning are subject to the light of His wisdom. Even the seemingly wise thoughts of men pale in comparison to God's wisdom.

In fairness, I believe each view has its own shortcomings. Humanism is fatally flawed, in that each person is left to his own devices. If actually realized, this would lead to anarchy. Just think of one of life's simple concepts … a red light. Left to one's own rational thoughts, different degrees of importance are placed on red lights by different people, and deaths regularly occur because 'wisdom' and 'moral agreement' is relative, not a fixed concept. The classical humanist readily admits this.

We will not speak here of the wars and atrocities that have taken place at the hands of 'rational' leaders and pragmatists either. That moral man is inherently 'sinful' should be a generally accepted concept. Even if we all could arrive at a place of wisdom and general enlightenment, history proves that does not guarantee we'll each heed wisdom and act prudently in all cases. Ideally, classical humanist thought is a nice concept; practically, however, it is impractical and fallacious.

Christianity (as well as any major religion), on the other hand, while more promising, is itself, flawed. I write this respectfully, as a Christian, myself. I think the problem arises because for the Christian worldview to work (basing it on Augustine's concepts) man needs to:

a) Possess divine guidance

b) Comprehend ultimate truth

c) Allow a continual process of consecration in their lives (regeneration)

d) Obey

While Judeo-Christian values ​​can be credited with undergirding centuries of peace and civility among men, the abuses, corruptions, and wars that are attributed to religion are numerous as well. The problem, again, lies in the very need for the solution itself, that is, man's sinfulness. We are all free moral agents, and even if divine guidance was available and heeded each moment by each individual, moral man would still need to choose to obey it.

Can man trust himself and his 'reflections'? Can man truly 'know' and listen to God. Are religion and religious rules enough? Both classical humanist thought and Christianity attempt to answer these questions. Both approaches are different, in that they focus on different sources of moral authority and a different source of wisdom.

Top Ten List of Bad Mortgage Lenders

When a person is in bad credit, it depicts to the world that he is not worthy of credit. If he tries to take a personal loan, banks and financial institutions will shut their doors on him. Only sub prime bad credit lenders will give him money but they will charge exorbitant rates of interest. However, he can avoid all these problems if he goes in for a mortgage loan. In this type of loan, the borrower has to give same asset as a security for the loan. If he defaults on the loan, the lender can sell the asset and use that money to realize the loan.

Mortgage lenders charge very reasonable rates of interest as their own risk is very less. Bad mortgage lenders may charge a small premium fee as compared the ordinary mortgage lenders as it is considered a huge risk to lend money to a person in bad credit. Forbes and various other agencies conduct surveys and compile a top ten list of bad mortgage lenders. Based on these data, let us analyze the names that are on the list.

Citigroup: The largest financial services company not only in America but in the entire world-this honor goes to Citigroup, whose assets exceed $ 1trillion. It has more than 200 million customers in more than 100 countries. It is largest issuer of credit cards in the entire world. It survived the great Depression, innovated itself in the mid-20th century and feel into a series of scandals in the early 2000s. Still, it holds its ground because of its unparalleled service and total solutions. Its major competitors are JP Morgan chase & co., Bank of America Corporation and Merrill Lynch & co. Citigroup has a still longer way to go. It has set its aspiration for a 75% increase in dividends. Only time will tell if this dream is to become a reality.

Citigroup tops the Forbes list as the best mortgage company for bad credit. One main reason for this is the unparalleled customer service that this company provides. This corporate giant has a large network of support to ease the application and use of mortgage loans for its borrowers. It has a great reputation that it preserves untarnished. It operates in moose than 54 countries apart from America. In 2006 alone, it had revenue of $ 108 billion and current assets of $ 1.3 trillion.

Bank of America: Next in line appears the Bank of America. It ranks second in the Forbes list. This is America's leading bank. It is a leader in offering mortgage services and small loans to its customers. It is not only the third largest American bank but is also a guru in credit card dealing. The best part in availing a mortgage here is

i) There is no application fee and closing fees here

ii) There is no need for private mortgage insurance

iii) it has close on-time guarantee and the best value guarantee

iv) Bank of America have 24/7 support to check application status and get real time status updates.

Wells Fargo Bank: Wells Fargo is the major American mortgage company. It has more than thousand branches spread across the world. Out of its' revenue of $ 33 million in 2005, mortgage lending contributed a major portion. As per the market cap, this bank is the 9th largest in the world and it is the 5th largest bank in America as per its assets. It has more than 23 million customers and nearly 160, 000 employees.

Wachovia: Wachovia is the fourth largest mortgage bank in America. They have a 25% discount offer on the origination fee if you use their online service. Wachovia assists mortgage-takers in every step from buying a new house to moving in. In fact, they have a 'Move Easy with Wachovia' program wherein you can avail their moving service at no additional cost plus you can even win a cash reward if you use their network real estate agent to purchase your house.

Golden West Financial Corporation: The third largest savings and loan corporation in America is the Golden West Financial Corporation. It has nearly 450 locations. This is one of the best and largest bad mortgage lenders in America. It focuses mostly on the individual home buyers. One small disadvantage of this company is its traditional nature. It is not quick in taking up and offering the zillions of other little products and services that other companies offer. But, still it has held its ground even in difficult economic environment.

BB & T: BB & T provides total financial solutions for everyone-right from student loan and home loans to loans for raising capital and financing businesses. They offer credit cards, insurance, merchant services and all. It is the nation's 14th largest financial-holding company and has locations in over 11 states at 1500 places including the Washington DC It has nearly 29000 employees to provide a total comprehensive service solution.

Popular: Puerto Rico's largest bank is Banco Popular and this is a subsidiary of Popular Inc., a bank holding company. It is the largest vehicle-leasing and daily-rental company of Puerto Rico and issues mortgages and other loans. It has seen a it rapid Growth in US in last few years and now stands one 's color : as of the Leading provider's of bad mortgage loans .

After this appear M & T, Marshall and ILSLEY, Amsouth Bancorp and Synovus Financial. They find a prominent place in most of the lists of bad mortgage lenders. This list is neither accurate for all times nor is it comprehensive.

So, always shop around and get quotations from various lenders before choosing the lender who is best suited for your financial situation. Remember the business maxim 'caveat emptor' – 'let the buyer be aware' applies to mortgage loans too.

Machine Learning: Value For Business

Machine learning (ML) algorithms allows computers to define and apply rules which were not described explicitly by the developer.

There are quite a lot of articles devoted to machine learning algorithms. Here is an attempt to make a "helicopter view" description of how these algorithms are applied in different business areas. This list is not an exhaustive list of course.

The first point is that ML algorithms can assist people by helping them to find patterns or dependencies, which are not visible by a human.

Numeric forecasting seems to be the most well known area here. For a long time computers were actively used for predicting the behavior of financial markets. Most models were developed before the 1980s, when financial markets got access to sufficient computational power. Later these technologies spread to other industries. Since computing power is cheap now, it can be used by even small companies for all kinds of forecasting, such as traffic (people, cars, users), sales forecasting and more.

Anomaly detection algorithms help people scan lots of data and identify which cases should be checked as anomalies. In finance they can identify fraudulent transactions. In infrastructure monitoring they make it possible to identify problems before they affect business. It is used in manufacturing quality control.

The main idea here is that you should not describe each type of anomaly. You give a big list of different known cases (a learning set) to the system and system use it for anomaly identifying.

Object clustering algorithms allows to group big amount of data using wide range of meaningful criteria. A man can not operate efficiently with more than few hundreds of object with many parameters. Machine can do clustering more efficient, for example, for customers / leads qualification, product lists segmentation, customer support cases classification etc.

Recommendations / preferences / behavior prediction algorithms gives us opportunity to be more efficient interacting with customers or users by offering them exactly what they need, even if they have not thought about it before. Recommendation systems works really bad in most of services now, but this sector will be improved rapidly very soon.

The second point is that machine learning algorithms can replace people. System makes analysis of people's actions, build rules basing on this information (ie learn from people) and apply this rules acting instead of people.

First of all this is about all types of standard decisions making. There are a lot of activities which require for standard actions in standard situations. People make some "standard decisions" and escalate cases which are not standard. There are no reasons, why machines can not do that: documents processing, cold calls, bookkeeping, first line customer support etc.

And again, the main feature here is that ML does not require for explicit rules definition. It "learns" from cases, which are already resolved by people during their work, and it makes the learning process cheaper. Such systems will save a lot of money for business owners, but many people will lose their job.

Another fruitful area is all kinds of data harvesting / web scraping. Google knows a lot. But when you need to get some aggregated structured information from the web, you still need to attract a human to do that (and there is a big chance that result will not be really good). Information aggregation, structuring and cross-validation, based on your preferences and requirements, will be automated thanks to ML. Qualitative analysis of information will still be made by people.

Finally, all this approaches can be used in almost any industry. We should take it into account, when predict the future of some markets and of our society in general.

Beware of Direct Transfer Designations – TOD's, POD's and Simple Beneficiary Designations

Direct transfer designations, like POD's (payable on death designations) and TOD's (transfer on death designations), and simple beneficiary designations, are mechanisms by which an account or other asset is transferred or paid upon the death of the account holder or asset owner to a beneficiary. They are often recommended by the administrator of the account, such as a bank, broker or life insurance company. While these can be very effective and inexpensive means by which to avoid probate and transfer assets at death, they are not without their risks and challenges. A lack of careful consideration of the risks and rewards of these mechanisms can be disastrous. A carefully prepared estate plan will consider, and resolve, all of the risks and challenges of these mechanisms.

Benefits of Direct Transfer Designations

Direct transfer designations, such as POD's and TOD's have several benefits. The most important benefits are that they are cheap and easy. Most institutions will permit you to make such designations as a service, for no additional fee. They are simple to create, and there is no need for an attorney or other professional. Most of these designations are made by account owners without legal or professional advice or counsel. Particularly because of this simplicity, they are very popular.

The second benefit is that the payment or transfer is more or less immediate and direct. Where there is a need to make cash or other liquid assets immediately available to a child or grandchild for some purpose, a TOD or POD appear attractive at first glance. Beneficiary transfers, however, typically require claim forms, and documentation in support of the claim. In reality, the process may take more time and effort than succession of ownership (such as through a living trust or joint tenancy with right of survivorship). Nonetheless, it is the assumption that funds are available immediately that often causes folks to choose direct transfer designations.

Unquestionably, direct transfers can have unique benefits as a result of this direct payment, whether or not immediate. For example, if you are widowed and want the bulk of your estate to pass to your children, but still desire a particular asset, fund, account or benefit to pass to a significant other or second spouse, without involvement of your children, a direct transfer may be warranted. Of course, such circumstances are specific, unique, and situational. The proper method for accomplishing an intended result depends upon first carefully considering all options to ensure that the proper tool is selected.

The third benefit is that a direct transfer designation may avoid probate, provided, however, that the beneficiary, transferee, or payee is alive at the death of the account holder or owner. If the beneficiary passes before or after, the asset may be probated. Particularly because the avoidance of probate may not be effective, TOD's and POD's are of limited utility in a carefully planned estate. Not surprisingly, because they are available at little or no cost, they are often used for the sole purpose of avoiding probate as an inexpensive substitute for more comprehensive planning. Make no mistake that these devices are NOT substitutes for living trusts. If you have utilized TOD's or POD's in your estate plan, particularly if you have done so without professional guidance, you may want to consider carefully the many possible disadvantages of these tools, and consider a more appropriate planning technique.

Regardless, these designations do not, at least effectively, accomplish several goals that might be accomplished by proper estate planning. For example, these devices do not avoid estate taxes, reduce the risk of guardianship, or permit management of assets during periods of incompetency or incapacity, and may not even avoid probate of the asset.

Moreover, there are several potential drawbacks to such devices, particularly if they are used without careful consideration or the advice of counsel. The biggest drawback to these plans is that they do not plan for contingencies. Additionally, use of such designations can cause illiquid estates, can lead to or cause unintended disinheritance, can lead to lawsuits or disputes, and can facilitate or encourage guardianship.

The limitations to such planning devices are discussed further below, followed by a discussion of their potential disadvantages.

Direct Transfer Designations Do Not Avoid Estate Tax

If you have any incident of ownership in or to an account or other asset, it will be included in your taxable estate for estate tax purposes. Consequently, direct transfer designations are not appropriate tools for estate tax planning, if your intention is to remove the value of the asset from your taxable estate. Generally, unless some other reason for excluding the account exists, the account will be included in your taxable estate notwithstanding the direct transfer designation.

POD's and TOD's May Not Avoid Probate

There are numerous instances where these techniques have been used to avoid probate, and yet the assets of the estate were nonetheless probated. Transfer upon death designations are not typically made for personal property, and may in fact be unavailable to transfer such assets. Under recent Ohio law, a transfer upon death deed was unavailable for real property that was owned jointly with a right of survivorship, as is most real property owned by a husband and wife. Regardless, if there are sufficient assets to probate, the other assets will pass through probate, even if liquid or other property avoids probate.

Moreover, these designations do nothing to protect assets from administration by a guardian or conservator in the event of incompetence or incapacity. They also do not prevent challenges to a will, appointment of executor, or other legal disputes which may ultimately be resolved by the probate court.

Finally, these designations will not avoid probate if the beneficiary passes away either before or after the account or asset owner. A probate administration may be necessitated, whereas property passing by way of trust will not need to be probated in the event of a death of an heir.

Direct Transfer Designations Do Not Avoid Guardianship

Direct transfer designations do nothing to protect assets from administration by a guardian or conservator in the event of incompetence or incapacity. The regarding more information For the Guardianship of by danger, he Consider the free Open Letter to Congress , drafted by vBulletin® the National Association to Stop Guardian Abuse .

Direct Transfer Designations May Create Illiquid Probate Estates

One potential drawback to these designations, particularly when placed on all liquid checking, savings, and investment accounts is that an estate can be made illiquid. Lack of liquidity can be a problem where there is real estate, personal property, or other assets that must be probated. Probate administration and estate taxes must be paid, and if the probate estate is insufficient to do so, heirs may be required to return cash to the estate, or property may be sold at fire sale prices to satisfy obligations. It is important to consider that ad hoc asset level planning to avoid probate often leaves assets to be probated.

Direct Transfer Designations Do Not Plan For Contingencies

The biggest disadvantage is that these devises are usually limited, and do not provide for contingencies. These plans very rarely answer the "what if?" questions considered by a carefully prepared estate plan. For example, what if the transferee or payee dies shortly before or after the owner? In most cases, the designation will simply pay the estate of the deceased transferee or payee. If, for example, the payee is your son, and he dies before you, without a will, the account or asset will be paid in whole or part to your daughter-in-law. You may desire that no part of your estate pass to the spouses of your children, in order to protect your grandchildren in the event of remarriage. Moreover, if you intended to avoid probate of your assets, you may fail in your efforts.

There are numerous examples of contingencies that a living or testamentary trust can address which are not typically addressed by POD's and TOD's. What if the property passes intentionally or unintentionally to a minor? Do you want the property to be distributed to the minor upon his or her reaching age eighteen or obtaining emancipation, or would you prefer to protect minors from their inexperience and lack of wisdom in managing assets?

What if the heir has financial difficulties, lawsuits, judgment liens, tax liens, or similar problems at the time of your death? If you do not intend your assets to pay the claims of third parties against your heirs, you should consider an alternative to a simple TOD or POD.

What if your heir is undergoing a divorce, dissolution, separation, or other marital difficulty? A TOD or POD may or may not be involved in such a dispute, depending upon a number of factors and your state law.

What if an heir is handicapped mentally or physically at the time of your death. If you want to protect that heir, you may want more than a simple TOD or POD.

What if an heir suffers from a substance abuse or other dependency that could affect their ability to manage their affairs? TOD and POD clauses rarely protect a family from such contingencies.

What if an heir joins or becomes a member of a quasi-religious organization, cult, or other organization pursuant to which your heir agrees to surrender or deliver all of the heir's assets? You may not want your worldly possessions to facilitate or benefit a cult.

What if there is a dispute, contest, or lawsuit? How is the dispute to be resolved, and on what basis?

Regardless which "what if" question concerns you now, you should consider many possible contingencies. As a result, a carefully considered and well drafted estate plan will consider and provide solutions to all of these and many more. TOD's and POD's simply have no solutions, because they are not, in and of themselves, "plans."

Direct Transfer Designations Can Lead to Unintended Disinheritance

Another disadvantage of direct transfers is that they can lead to unintended disinheritance. This occurs because folks often use these to segregate accounts. In other words, a person will select one account with a TOD or POD designation for one heir, and another account for another heir. This is often done to keep confidential account balances which may favor one heir as against another. These can be disastrous in an estate plan. Consider the following example:

Widow Smith has three children and three CD's. Two CD's are worth ten thousand dollars, but the third is worth twenty five thousand dollars. Smith's oldest daughter lives very near, is often helpful in Smith's day-to-day activities, and is Smith's designated attorney-in-fact. Smith makes the larger CD payable upon death (POD) to the oldest daughter, but makes the others payable to the other children. Unfortunately, Smith suffers a stroke and undergoes lengthy period of convalescence, including a stay in a nursing home. The expenses require the daughter, now acting through power of attorney, to liquidate one of the smaller CD's, and to liquidate the larger CD to cash, of which she spends ten thousand dollars. Assuming the only assets remaining at Smith's death are the checking account, which is now worth only approximately 15 thousand dollars, and the remaining CD which is worth ten thousand dollars, you can see how the POD failed to effectuate her wishes. The checking account is divided equally between the children (5 thousand dollars each) (Widow Smith probably assumed like many people that the checking account will only have a nominal amount of money in the account, which may not be true as the family deals with medical or other crises). Therefore instead of the oldest daughter receiving twenty five thousand dollars, she receives only five thousand. One of the other children receives fifteen thousand dollars. It is obvious the results were not in keeping with the intentions of Widow Smith.

An Attorney-in-Fact May Change Your Wishes

Most people who have utilized direct transfer designations assume that their estate plan is set, and their wishes will be followed. Sadly, nothing could be further from the truth. A direct transfer designation is typically a contractual right, which can be changed by an attorney-in-fact. Moreover, an asset can be transferred, and the designation "undone" by any person with authority over you or your estate, such as a guardian or conservator. Bottom line? A beneficiary designation is simply not an adequate estate plan for most people.

Direct Transfer Designations May Lead to Lawsuits Or Disputes

For all of the foregoing reasons, and countless others, direct transfer designations may cause your estate to be disputed, and may encourage, rather than discourage lawsuits and litigation. There is no substitute for a carefully considered and well drafted trust to ensure that your wishes are expressed and carried out.

Direct Transfer Designations May Facilitate or Encourage Guardianships

Particularly because they may create expectations in the minds of heirs, and because their use certainly does not discourage, and may encourage disputes, reliance on these in your estate plan might even encourage a guardianship application by an otherwise well-meaning heir as he or she seeks to protect their inheritance from others.

Guardianship may be necessitated by assets passing to contingent beneficiaries, as well, such as underage grandchildren. Since the goal of such designations is, in part, avoidance of probate, carefully consider their use in an estate plan.

What is Sales Financing?

Running a business is a difficult process and one which is constantly fraught with unexpected financial difficulties. Balancing acts are constantly required to ensure there is enough money in the business coffers to cover wages, rent, tax and other regular bills, as well as stock and equipment purchasing.

For all businesses, one of the key factors of success involves ensuring the quick release of funds in order to enable further purchasing or investment decisions. If funds are tied up rather than available for use, then the entire business process can screech to a halt.

One of the most common problems in business usually occurs when large sales are successfully made and the work is invoiced to the client, but payment is not immediately forthcoming. This means that there is a lot of cash tied up in sales ledgers which are not available for use on other projects such as restocking. This is an all too common situation which can prove disastrous to many companies – especially smaller businesses and start-ups who are usually the least able to effectively deal with these types of situations due to generally low levels of liquid assets in the first place.

Has lead to this the creation of a number of business and sales financing products by vBulletin® larger institutions and specialist business finance Organizations to fill the gap in corporate finance. These days, many banks can provide business banking services such as factoring, invoice discounting, and stock finance to enable their clients to free up many of the assets that they normally have access to for working capital.

Sourcing a financial institution to deal with the recovery of funds tied up with stock or invoices and to help deal with sales ledgers can enhance a business on several fronts. Not only does the company not have to worry about chasing up debtors, but the money is quickly made available for reinvestment; and the risks of suffering from bad debt are significantly lowered, as it can become the province of the factoring company to pursue reticent debtors. Factoring companies will often also make available additional debt recovery litigation services if they should become required.

While some businesses may see the costs of using sales finance services as cutting into profit margins, the benefits of having funds made accessible for use towards working capital – rather than sitting with inaccessible funds which do not for the company – can prove to be invaluable in enabling company growth and stability.

Merits and Demerits of Debt Finance

Debt financing means to borrow funds or to arrange for investments from external sources. Large scale businesses and organizations are not able to run all their affairs from their own capital so it is usual for them to take loans. The most prevalent example of this type of finance is the loans taken from banks. The amount of the loan is to be repaid in agreed installments along with interest at a specified rate.

Merits of Debt Finance:

Following are the merits of debt finance:

(i) Scope for Expansion: Debt financing allows business to expand its operations. New branches can be opened in other cities and countries. New lines of business can be adopted to increase revenues. The easy availability of credit encourages entrepreneur to take new risks and float new products. It also enables businessmen to increase the scale of their operations and to upgrade their products in time.

(ii) Research and Development: Debt financing allows the process of research and development. Loans taken from banks can be used to accelerate R & D activities. Earning potential of the company increases when the research hard products are floated in the market. The new innovation, besides increasing companies reputation, also reduces its cost of production.

(iii) High Profit: Due to expansion of business and use of new techniques the revenues and profits of the business also grow. Huge revenues means that there will be a room for further expansion of the business. Higher profit can also be used to repay the bank loans. Thus increasing the solvency of business.

(iv) Ease of Working Capital: Debt financing helps in maintaining adequate working capital of the business. It also provides a room for making regular payments easily.

(v) Revival of Sick Units: Debt financing may be used to give a breathe to the sick industrial units. The organization's loans can be rescheduled and new credit can be taken for such units so that they can start their production. Besides providing finance, proper supervision and guidance should also be given. All this will rehabilitate the sick units and can help them to be successful and profitable units.

(v) Saving from Insolvency: Debt financing may be used to save the business from insolvency. In case any essential payment is to be made and there are not enough equity funds then a loan can be taken to make payments and to save the business from insolvency.

(vi) Tax Advantage: As the interest charge is subtracted from net income before applying tax rate, so this leads to lower tax liability.

Demerits of Debt Finance:

Following are the demerits of debt financing:

(i) Interest Payments: Very huge amount out of net profit of the business have to be paid on account of interest on borrowed capital.

(ii) Depression: If a business comes under depression and losses occur, then the payments of interest could become a great problem due to inadequacy of funds.

(iii) Suit Against Business: Creditor can file suits against business if business fails to make payments as agreed.

(iv) Seizing of Collateral: If the business fails to pay interest on capital amount of loan the bank could seize the collateral or mortgaged property.

(v) Risky Investment: If a business is already running on the huge borrowed capital, further investment in a business becomes risky. This risk discourages investors. Banks also hesitate to grant loans to such business which are already under debt burden.

Effect of Liberalisation in Insurance Industry


The journey of insurance liberalization process in India is now over seven years old. The first major milestone in this journey has been the passing of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. This along with amendments to the Insurance Act 1983, LIC and GIC Acts paves the way for the entry of private players and possibly the privatization of the hitherto public monopolies LIC and GIC. Opening up of insurance to private sector including foreign participation has resulted into various opportunities and challenges.

Concept of Insurance

In our daily life, whenever there is uncertainly there is an involvement of risk. The instinct of security against such risk is one of the basic motivating forces for determining human attitudes. As a sequel to this quest for security, the concept of insurance must have been born. The urge to provide insurance or protection against the loss of life and property must have promoted people to make some sort of sacrifice willingly in order to achieve security through collective co-operation. In this sense, the story of insurance is probably as old as the story of mankind.

Life insurance in particular provides protection to household against the risk of premature death of its income earning member. Life insurance in modern times also provides protection against other life related risks such as that of longevity (ie risk of outliving of source of income) and risk of disabled and sickness (health insurance). The products provide for longevity are pensions and annuities (insurance against old age). Non-life insurance provides protection against accidents, property damage, theft and other liabilities. Non-life insurance contracts are typically shorter in duration as compared to life insurance contracts. The bundling together of risk coverage and saving is peculiar of life insurance. Life insurance provides both protection and investment.

Insurance is a boon to business concerns. Insurance provides short range and long range relief. The short-term relief is aimed at protecting the insured from loss of property and life by distributing the loss amongst large number of persons through the medium of professional risk bearers such as insurers. It enables a businessman to face an unforeseen loss and, therefore, he need not worry about the possible loss. The long-range object being the economic and industrial growth of the country by making an investment of huge funds available with insurers in the organized industry and commerce.

General Insurance

Prior to nationalizations of General insurance industry in 1973 the GIC Act was passed in the Parliament in 1971, but it came into effect in 1973. There was 107 General insurance companies including branches of foreign companies operating in the country upon nationalization, these companies were amalgamated and grouped into the following four subsidiaries of GIC such as National Insurance Co.Ltd., Calcutta; The New India Assurance Co. Ltd., Mumbai; The Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd., New Delhi and United India Insurance Co. Ltd., Chennai and Now delinked.

General insurance business in India is broadly divided into fire, marine and miscellaneous GIC apart from directly handling Aviation and Reinsurance business administers the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme, Personal Accident Insurance, Social Security Scheme etc. The GIC and its subsidiaries in keeping with the objective of nationalization to spread the message of insurance far and wide and to provide insurance protection to weaker section of the society are making efforts to design new covers and also to popularize other non-traditional business.

Liberalization of Insurance

The comprehensive regulation of insurance business in India was brought into effect with the enactment of the Insurance Act, 1983. It tried to create a strong and powerful supervision and regulatory authority in the Controller of Insurance with powers to direct, advise, investigate, register and liquidate insurance companies etc. However, consequent upon the nationalization of insurance business, most of the regulatory functions were taken away from the Controller of Insurance and vested in the insurers themselves. The Government of India in 1993 had set up a high powered committee by RNMalhotra, former Governor, Reserve Bank of India, to examine the structure of the insurance industry and recommend changes to make it more efficient and competitive keeping in view the structural changes in other parts of the financial system on the country.

Malhotra Committee's Recommendations

The committee submitted its report in January 1994 recommending that private insurers be allowed to co-exist along with government companies like LIC and GIC companies. This recommendation had been prompted by several factors such as need for greater deeper insurance coverage in the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy for infrastructural development . Liberalization of the insurance sector is at least partly driven by fiscal necessity of tapping the big reserve of savings in the economy. Committee's recommendations were as follows:

o Raising the capital base of LIC and GIC up to Rs. 200 crores, half retained by the government and rest sold to the public at large with suitable reservations for its employees.
o Private sector is granted to enter insurance industry with a minimum paid up capital of Rs. 100 crores.
o Foreign insurance be allowed to enter by floating an Indian company preferably a joint venture with Indian partners.
o Steps are initiated to set up a strong and effective insurance regulatory in the form of a statutory autonomous board on the lines of SEBI.
o Limited number of private companies to be allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed to operate in both lines of insurance (life or non-life).
o Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) is delinked form GIC to function as a separate statuary body under necessary supervision by the insurance regulatory authority.
oAll insurance companies be treated on equal footing and governed by the provisions of insurance Act. No special dispensation is given to government companies.
oSetting up of a strong and effective regulatory body with independent source for financing before allowing private companies into sector.

competition to government sector:

Government companies have now to face competition to private sector insurance companies not only in issuing various range of insurance products but also in various aspects in terms of customer service, channels of distribution, effective techniques of selling the products etc. privatization of the insurance sector has opened the doors to innovations in the way business can be transacted.

New age insurance companies are embarking on new concepts and more cost effective way of transacting business. The idea is clear to cater to the maximum business at the lest cost. And slowly with time, the age-old norm prevalent with government companies to expand by setting up branches seems getting lost. Among the techniques that seem to catching up fast as an alternative to cater to the rural and social sector insurance is hub and spoke arrangement. These along with the participants of NGOs and Self Help Group (SHGs) have done with most of the selling of the rural and social sector policies.

The main challenges is from the commercial banks that have vast network of branches. In this regard, it is important to mention here that LIC has entered into an arrangement with Mangalore based Corporations Bank to leverage their infrastructure for mutual benefit with the insurance monolith acquiring a strategic stake 27 per cent, Corporation Bank has decided to abandon its plans of promoting a life insurance company. The bank will act as a corporate agent for LIC in future and receive commission on policies sold through its branches. LIC with its branch network of close to 2100 offices will allow Corporation Bank to set up extension centers. ATMs or branches with in its premises. Corporation Bank would in turn implement an effective Cash Flow Management System for LIC.

IRDA Act, 1999

Preamble of IRDA Act 1999 reads' An Act to provide for the establishment of an authority to protect the interests of holders of insurance policies, to regulate, to promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Section 14 of IRDA Act, lays the duties, powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the Authority shall include the following.

o Issue to the applicant a certificate of registration, to renew, modify withdraw, suspend or cancel such registration.
o To protect the interest of policy holders in all matters concerning nomination of policy, surrender value f policy, insurable interest, settlement of insurance claims, other terms and conditions of contract of insurance.
o Specifying requisite qualification and practical training for insurance intermediates and agents.
o Specifying code of conduct for surveyors and loss assessors.
o Promoting efficiency in the conduct of insurance business
o Promoting and regulating professional regulators connected with the insurance and reinsurance business.
o Specifying the form and manner in which books of accounts will be maintained and statement of accounts rendered by insurers and insurance intermediaries.
o Adjudication of disputes between insurers and intermediates.
o Specifying the percentage of life insurance and general and general business to be undertaken by the insurers in rural or social sectors etc.

Section 25 provides that Insurance Advisory Committee will be constituted and shall consist of not more than 25 members.Section 26 provides that Authority may in consultation with Insurance Advisory Committee make regulations consists with this Act and the rules made there under to carry the purpose of this Act.Section 29 seeks amendment in certain provisions of Insurance Act, 1938 in the manner as set out in First Schedule. The amendments to the Insurance Act are consequential in order to empower IRDA to effectively regulate, promote, and ensure orderly growth of the Insurance industry.

Section 30 & 31seek to amend LIC Act 1956 and GIC Act 1972.

Impact of Liberalization

While nationalized insurance companies have done a commendable job in extending volume of the business opening up of insurance sector to private players was a necessity in the context of liberalization of financial sector. If traditional infrastructural and semipublic goods industries such as banking, airlines, telecom, power etc. have significant private sector presence, continuing state monopoly in provision of insurance was indefensible and therefore, the privatization of insurance has been done as discussed earlier. Its impact has to be seen in the form of creating various opportunities and challenges.


1. Privatization if Insurance was eliminated the monopolistic business of Life Insurance Corporation of India. It may help to cover the wide range of risk in general insurance and also in life insurance. It helps to introduce new range of products.
2. It would also result in better customer services and help improve the variety and price of insurance products.
3. The entry of new player would speed up the spread of both life and general insurance. It will increase the insurance penetration and measure of density.
4. Entry of private players will ensure the mobilization of funds that can be utilized for the purpose of infrastructure development.
5. Allowing of commercial banks into insurance business will help to mobilization of funds from the rural areas because of the availability of vast branches of the banks.
6. Most important not the least tremendous employment opportunities will be created in the field of insurance which is a burning problem of the presence day today issues.

Current Scenario

After opening up of insurance in private sector, various leading private companies including joint ventures have entered the fields of insurance both life and non-life business. Tata – AIG, Birla Sun life, HDFC standard life Insurance, Reliance General Insurance, Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance, Bajaj Auto Alliance, IFFCO Tokio General Insurance, INA Vysya Life Insurance, SBI Life Insurance, Dabur CJU Life Insurance and Max New York Life. SBI Life insurance has launched three products Sanjeevan, Sukhjeevan and Young Sanjeevan so far and it has already sold 320 policies under its plan.


From the above discussion we can conclude that the entry of private players in insurance business needful and justifiable in order to enhance the efficiency of operations, achieving greater density and insurance coverage in the country and for a greater mobilization of long term savings for long gestation infrastructure prefects. New players should not be treat as rivalries to government companies, but they can supplement in achieving the objective of growth of insurance business in india.

Vocabulary Development Powered By Film Credits For ESL Learners

"When all think alike, then no one is thinking." – Walter Lippman

The development of technology plays a highly vibrant part in media evolution from outmoded to contemporary technology presentations for its messages to reach every individual consumers. As a result, the media does changes which are evidently observed among its genre such as films that manifest complex structures to impress audience. Furthermore, it can be perceived that from films' posters to their end credits, are unseen factors which tend to be highly pedagogical for English language acquisition when imaginatively and seriously handled by language educators. This inventive awareness anchors with the theory of audio- visual literacy which supports the said material for the enhancement of learners' linguistic and communicative competence. This concept fetches us to a solid idea that every film's features do not only function as purely entertainment but are possibly noteworthy in language achievement. In other words, every element it possesses may interrelate or unfold instructional strategies. One of its significant components is the end credits known as a list not limited to the cast and crew of a motion picture found at its ending. To be able to explicate its pedagogical value, an example of it is lifted from a movie, Edge of Darkness. The motion picture's final credits were dissected as inputs for innovative vocabulary teaching through series of constructed tasks' interplaying with single words, collocations, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

The Springboard

The material is an edited end credits of the film Edge of Darkness produced in 2010 by the film outfit, Warner Bros.

Edited Cast

Mel Gibson – Mr. Tom Craven Bojana Novakovic – Emma Craven, Mr. Craven's daughter Damian Young – Senator Jim Pine Caterina Scorsone – Melissa Wayne Duvall – Chief of Police Gbenga Akinnagbe – Detective Darcy Jones Paul Sparks – Northampton Police Detective Christy Scott Cashman – Detective Vicki Hurd
Gordon Peterson – interviewer
Timothy Sawyer -Dr. Sawyer
Molly Schreiber – reporter
Charles Harrington – neighbor
Lisa Hughes – news anchor
Charlie Alejandro – Boston Police officer
Cindi Alex – driver
Terry Conforti -wife of Senator Pine
Nicholas Grava -basketball player
Dan Marshall – hospital visitor
Robert Masiello -businessman
Gary Roscoe -newsroom editor
Edward Stanley -Radio Reporter
Vyvian Stevens -Tom Craven's friend
Darryl Wooten -TV News reporter
Adam Zalt -business traveler

Edited Crew

Film Director – Martin Campbell
TV and Movie Screenplays writers -William Monahan, Andrew Bovell
and Troy Kennedy-Martin
Producer – Tim Headington and Graham King
Co-executive producers- Jamie Laurenson, Gail Lyon, Lucienne Papon, and Kwame Parker
Musical scorer – Howard Shore
Cinematography – Phil Meheux
Film editor – Stuart Baird
Casting manager- Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman
Production Designer -Thomas Sanders
Art Director – Greg berry Greg Berry, Mark Satterlee, and Suzan Wexler
Set Decorator – Jay hart
Costume Designer -Lindy Hemming
Makeup Artist-Marleen Alter
Props man- Gary Alioto (carpenter)
Sound mixer -James Ashwill
Special effects technician -John baker
Visual effects artists -Stella Ampatzi, Suzette Barnett
Stunt performers -Charlie Alejandro, Rick Avery, Dean Bailey Peter Bucossi, and Jared Burke
Film location Manager – Gregory Alpert
Location scout -Gregory Chiodo
Transportation coordinator -Mike Davis

Some suggestions

Some recommendations about this teaching process may include but not limited to these enumerated ideas. Primarily, review your institutions' curricula if they establish a close significance to the materials and the lessons you are planning to conduct. Your intended material should relate dominantly with the projected outcomes of your organizations' programs and if they do, examine the end credits thoroughly if they embody the vocabularies to be prioritized. Rip the credits from the whole film which may run for a maximum of three (3) minutes or less to suit the timeframe of your specific lesson. Play and pause the video of it during the discussion. You can simplify the credits according to students' needs before you deliberate. It is suggested that you construct a diagram or a schema to relate covered words. Teach vocabularies anchored with the strategies being introduced in Cambridge English teachers' courses such as illustration, pictures, word structures, mime, word association, word classification, context, synonyms / antonyms / hyponyms, definition, translation, realia, among others. In the event that you decide to modify the activities, it is proposed that you base your instructions from the taxonomy of objectives under the (6) six order thinking skills where they fall. By doing this, each activity's direction will function as your future upshots. Be aware that vocabulary learning deals with words, phrases, collocations and sentences. Produce a copy of the instructional input to be distributed or as an alternative, display a model onscreen while activities are being performed. To add, note that while activities are being completed, varied expressions will emerge to form the entirety of learned languages. When time constraint hampers activity engagement, some tasks may not be covered. It is suggested that you choose the necessary task / s that you can administer under a prescribed teaching session.

The Vocabulary Exercises

These are recommended designed tasks that one can employ, modify or pattern in vocabulary instructions out of a film's end credits. Additionally, some implications of each activity are practically discussed in relation to how leaners attain vocabularies while the rests of the exercises exude important rudiments of language acquisition as they are completed.

1. Construct two rows and classify female and male actors from the credits. Others were done for you.

Female Actors
1. Bojana Novakovic
2. Lisa Hughes
3. Molly Schreiber

Male Actors
1. Damian Young
2. Wayne Duvall
3. Mel Gibson

This activity implies a simple stage of learning wherein students are made to write, list, tell, point out, repeat or cite details. In relation to vocabulary development, students will be able to realize that words are composed of details, belong to a group, and are either general or specific. In accomplishing this, students are being exposed to the terms that they will soon be involved with.

2. Match Column A and Column B to relate individual cast's role in the film production.

Column A
1. Mel Gibson
2. Robert Masiello
3. Bojana Novakovic
4. Caterina Scorsone
5. Lisa Hughes
6. Molly Schreiber
7. Wayne Duvall
8. Gbenga Akinnagbe
9. Paul Sparks
10. Charles Harrington

Column B
a. detective Darcy Jones
b. reporter
c. Emma Craven
d. chief of police
e. a news anchor
f. businessman
g. Melissa
h. neighbor
i. Northampton Police Detective
j. Mr. Tom Craven

This has the same level with activity number (1) one. Additionally, it provides the thought that each word corresponds to another even if they are represented by persons' names, similar to the common understanding that each word has corresponding function / s. While they relate each word, there are expressions that will surface to be manipulated in connecting ideas. For example, "Mel Gibson acts as Mr. Craven," "Mel Gibson's role is Mr. Craven," "Mr. Gibson's role in the film is Mr. Craven." The words such as, acts, role, in, film emerged due to how ideas are going to be connected adding to the targeted expressions. At this point, we are made to understand that even a single word adds as an acquired vocabulary due to the functions it demonstrates under linguistically framed statements.

3. Fill-in the two columns to relate crew member's specific role in the film production. Five has been done for you.

Column A
Film Production Roles

1. Film Director
2. Screenplay writer
3. Film editor
4. Casting managers
5. Special effects technician

Column B
Film Crew Members

1. Martin Campbell
2. William Monahan, Andrew Bovell, and
Troy Kennedy-Martin
3. Stuart Baird
4. Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman
5. John Baker

This exercise exposes the students to vocabularies regarding the crew's roles and that relating the positions with the names will activate the utilization of additional languages. Furthermore, while they create relationships, learners are motivated to find out what these positions are all about by teachers' facilitation. To demonstrate, students connect the film director to Martin Campbell by the notion that both words-the name and the position refer to only one person. As a consequence, the students formulate a statement by the intervention of other expressions. Thus, in the first attempt, "Film director is Martin Campbell." In the second try, they invert by saying "Martin Campbell is director." The statements have missing words as noticed. With teachers' guidance, new expressions may arise leading to the formulation of linguistically correct responses. "The director is Martin Campbell," or "Martin Campbell is the Director." In a higher level, they would say, "The director of the film is Martin Campbell," or "The film's director is Martin Campbell," or "The film director of the Edge of Darkness is Martin Campbell." This activity illustrates an orderly increase of vocabularies through activated words to operate the target lexes.

4. Correct the words used to express the actors and their roles by placing appropriate articles- a, an, or the.

1. Molly Schreiber as an reporter
2. Charles Harrington as an neighbor
3. Lisa Hughes as an news anchor
4. Charlie Alejandro as Boston police officer
5. Cindi Alex as an driver
6. Terry Conforti as wife of senator Pine
7. Nicholas Grava as an basketball player
8. Dan Marshall as an hospital visitor
9. Robert Masiello as businessman
10. Gary Roscoe as an newsroom editor
11. Christy Scott Cashman as a Detective Vicki Hurd
12. Gordon Peterson as a interviewer
13. Timothy Sawyer as the Dr. Sawyer

5. Circle the appropriate word / s or phrases under the enclosed series to complete the sentences.

a. Film is similar to (script, movie, camera, shoot).
b. Cast composes (performance, performers, performing, perform) in the film.
c. Crew delivers (technical supports, acting, transportation, cinematography) generally.
d. Cinematographer is a (cameraman, gripper, scout, writer) who takes shots.
e. Screenplay writer is also a (scriptwriter, film editor, director, producer).
f. End credits are found (between, in the end, in the beginning, in the middle) of a film.
g. Producers (finances, finance, performs, fiancé) film productions.
h. Director mainly does (directing, stunts, producing, acting) assignments.
i. Actors are (performers, actresses, viewers, set decorators) in movies.
j. Opening credits are (found in between the first and the last, found at the end, found in the beginning, found after the middle) of the film.
k. Filming is (making films, done films, planned films, editing films).
l. Makeup artists beautify (directors ', producers', cameramen's, cast's) faces.
m. Film script is the (story, title, credits, loglines) of the movie.
n. Stars are the (main actors, stunts, extras, locations) performing in films.
o. Film outfit is a (company, costumes, costume, musical score) of movies.
p. Musical scorer provides (background music, story, shots, posters) for the film.

6. Classify the words according to names of jobs, skills, and film materials or equipment and write statements using them according to their given forms.

(1) cinematography (2) cinematographer (3) decorating (4) acting (5) casting (6) scouting (7) scripts (8) director (9) directing (10) Editing (11) animating (12) special effects director (13) movie camera (14) coordinating (15) film editor

7. Complete the sentences using the given end credits- related words.

directed -directs- direct- directing- films- filmed- filming- film editing-
film edition- direction – see a film- who's in- stars- starred-producers-
script- film location- makeup artist- musical scorer- casting director- set decorator

1. Motion pictures are also known as ________.
2. The film______________ academy award-wining actors a year ago.
3. Did Martin Campbell________ that acclaimed movie?
4. A director _________ how actors will perform.
5. He is ________ the current film.
6. He ________ the famous movie Edge of Darkness in 2010.
7. ___________support film making financially. producer
8. The cast and crew are now ___________ the movie in Australia.
9. That was________ in Italy.
10. After he carefully did _______________, the motion picture was shown.
11. He showed an outstanding ____________. Critics praised his film.
12. Actors have to memorize the dialogues found in the __________.
13. My brother wanted to ________ about the space.
14. Charlize Theron ________ as an underdog friend in her current film.
15. Please see the _____________. Something is wrong with your hair.
16. The ___________should match the music with the film's theme.
17. The ___________found performers that can justify the given roles.
18. __________ this movie? Could it be Kevin Costner?
19. He studied__________in London.
20. Location managers search for _________.
21. ________ do not have serious flaws.

8. Read the position- job connected words. Mark √ when you agree and × if you disagree.

(1) director-directs film (2) producer-producing film (3) actor-acting roles (4) screenplay writer-writing film script (5) makeup artist- decorating sets (6) film editor- writing script (7) cinematographer -taking shots (8) casting manager-editing films (9) producer-editing screenplays (10) art director- managing film setting (12) set decorator-transporting crew (13) costume designer-designing outfits (14) sound mixer- combining sounds (15) special effects technician -creating effects (16) stunt performers -doing film tricks (17) film location manager- deciding actors to play roles (18) musical scorer- finding places to film (19) location scout-searching for places to shoot (20) transportation coordinator -moving crews from one location to another to shoot.

9. Correct the factual mistakes if there are any in the sentences below.

a. The producers are the performers in the film's story.
b. The director writes the screenplay.
c. The makeup artist takes shots in film making.
d. The film editor looks for talents to perform roles.
e. A movie outfit is a company where products are made.
f. Props men do film directing jobs.
g. Set decorators furnish shooting settings to look like they are real.
h. Costume designers belong to the cast.
i. Sound mixers combine needed music during the editing of films.
j. Visual effects technician scout for places to shoot movies.
k. Stunt performers provide visual effects in the film.
l. Scriptwriters create film stories.
m. Warner Bros. It is a film outfit.

10. Transform the given verbs into nouns.

(1) directing (2) cinematographic (3) scripting (4) producing (5) edited (6) decorated (7) scored (8) starring (9) filmed (10) write (11) designed (12) transported (13 ) mixed (14) scouted (15) shoot (16) visualizing (17) performer (18) performed (19) located (20) manages

11. Transform the given nouns into verbs.

(1) producer (2) director (3) score (4) script (5) decorator (6) edition (7) script (8) editor (9) film (10) location (11) star (12) direction (13 ) animator (14) decorator (15) location (16) costume (17) manager (18) mixer (19) coordinator (20) actor

12. Create a brief definition by using the given words. Use present simple tenses and be able to supply some missing prepositions.

1. A scriptwriter / write / script / films.
2. A director / direct / actors / films.
3. A cameraman / take / shots / make / films.
4. Set decorators / enhances / beginning / end / settings.
5. Producers / finances / the making / films.

13. Find the words that best complete the phrases from the list. Be guided by the enclosed word / s in each number and the prepositions that signal the correct missing expressions.

Princess Latifah – a biographical film- film making-a raging dragon- urban Australia -Meryl Streep- Winter- the Oscars- daybreak- 20th Century Fox- 1977- a burning building-Martin Scorsese- a witch-films

1. Filming in (season)
2. Filming at (unspecified time)
3. Produced by (outfit or production)
4. Directed in (specified time)
5. Performed a stunt in (film scene)
6. Decorated a set for (director's name)
7. Was cast as (role)
8. Starred in (film title)
9. Scripted the story of (type of film)
10. A degree in (a specialization)
11. Special effects of (animated character)
12. Shot the film in (specific place)
13. Designed costume of (an actress)
14. A film that was nominated at (award-giving body)
15. Acted in (media genre)

14. Complete the missing words in the dialogue. Be guided by the end credits' contents.
Ali: What's on at the cinema today?
Fahad: There's a film on called _____________.
Ali: What kind of _______is it?
Fahad: It's a suspense thriller.
Ali: Who are in it?
Fahad: ____________ and__________ among other
popular stars.
Ali: What film outfit is it?
Fahad: It's from _________________.
Ali: Tell me more about the movie.
Fahad: It has a good___________for it features outstanding camera
works from _________________.
Ali: He's really a talented _____________.
Fahad: Indeed!
Ali: Who wrote the _______________ of it?
Fahad: They're _________. ________, And_________.
These three are skilled screenplay writers.
Ali: Okay, let's see that film tomorrow.
Fahad: See you there.

15. Underline the correct meaning of each given statement.

1. 4 years ago, he did a BA in Film Directing degree successfully at Texas State University.

a. He studied film directing for three years at TSU.
b. He had a seminar in film directing at TSU.
c. He's studying at Texas State University.
d. He studied and attained BA degree in Film Directing at TSU.

2. The scriptwriter wrote a script revolving around the theme of war.

a. The film's story is about war.
b. The film's story will be about war.
c. The film's subject is on war.
d. Both a and c

3. He starred as a patriot in an award-winning motion picture in 2014.

a. He was with a patriot in a 2014 film.
b. His role was a patriot in an acclaimed film in 2014.
c. His performance was too much of a patriot in 2014.
d. Both a and b.

4. Cinematographic works result to audiovisuals.

a. Cinematographic works cater to the hearing and sights of audience.
b. Cinematographic works create photographs only.
c. Cinematographic works are understood using the eyes and ears.
d. Both a and c.

5. Film crew composes mainly technical support in film making.

a. Film crew performs basically supporting roles film making.
b. Film crew performs major and supporting roles in film making
c. Film crew does mainly mechanical backup in film making.
d. Both a and c

6. The stuntman covered-up a stunt for the actor.

a. The stuntman and the actor did a stunt together.
b. The stuntman substituted the stunt of the actor.
c. The actor did a stunt for the stuntman who failed to perform.
d. The actor was given a covered gift by the stuntman.

16. Complete the paragraph by placing the appropriate words in the blanks. Read the film credits before deciding responses from the provided list.

-film editor-story-credit-crew-casting managers- special effects-directed-producers- screenplays- film- performers-stars-cast- location manager- cinematography- Suzette Barnett

This _________ (1) is entitled Edge of Darkness shot in 2010. Its_______ (2) are composed of cast and __________ (3). The cast composes the __________ (4) of the film while the crew is responsible for the different production's technical part. The ________ (5) includes Mel Gibson and Bojana Novakovic as father and daughter. It was __________ (6) by Martin Campbell in cooperation with Tim Headington and Graham King as _______. The film had TV and movie ________ (7) which were written by William Monahan, Andrew Bovell and Troy Kennedy-Martin. Also, this movie contained outstanding camera works of Phil Meheux which showcased his skill in ____________ (8). Being the ________ (9), Stuart Baird made it a point that the film runs sequentially for audience to understand the __________ (10) during the final editing. It was also made successfully through Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman as ____________ (11) who cast fine________ (12) that can truly justify given roles. In terms of ___________ (13), the featured scenes were so real due to the artistic craft of Stella Ampatzi and___________ (14). Finally, Gregory Alpert as a ____________ (15) added impact to the movie through great locations that established the story's theme and real-life settings.

17. Create hyponyms of the given words then deliver a talk about any of these.

(1) Film (2) actors (3) cast (4) crew (5) film outfits

18. Construct a movie poster by writing the cast and crew then deliver a talk regarding their positions and roles.

While it is observed that these several activities expose students to varied terms in film making manifesting content-based language learning approach, the intrusion of other expressions in the employment of this type of material aids to broaden the linguistic scope by allowing more words, phrases, collocations and sentences that are not limited to this field. Consider the fact that while vocabularies are learned, many essential language points for the completion of the given tasks interfere. The teachers 'strategic measures of incorporating these surfacing expressions could yield students' varied languages ​​in which they can further extend to garner additional lexes supported by other naturally developing terminologies that are communicatively probable. These prevailing situations should not be ignored due to their content and functional rudiments in coining words and statements linguistically. Likewise, repetitions of words that recur in the exercises were created primarily for learners' language exposures to give way for comprehension.

Edited film of Source credit: http: // www. imdb. com / title / tt1226273 / fullcredits? ref_ = tt_ql_1

The Prem What It Is And How To Read It – (Prem Is A Typical Symbol For The S & P 500 Premium)

The PREM in this discussion will refer to any of the following.

S & P Premium

Nasdaq Premium

Russell Premium

Symbols here are based on Tradestation.

The Premium is the difference between the futures and the cash index. The calculations are basically @ SP.P – $ INX = SP Premium, $ NQIQX – $ IQX = Nasdaq Premium, $ ER2IUX – $ IUX = Russell Premium.

However, the actual calculation of the premium is a bit more involved._ The PREM is calculated tick by tick, every time that there is a trade for @ SP.P, TS uses this value of @ SP.P minus the previous value of the $ INX to calculate the tick of the $ spinx._The same procedure is used with the $ INX._The values ​​for the minute bar are taken from the tick data generated for the $ spinx itself._Since not all stocks in the $ INX open at the same time, the first few minutes of the $ INX will be inaccurate._Consequently, the PREM will also be inaccurate until all stocks have opened._I adjust for this by using a custom session time that opens at 8: 32._Additionally, since the futures close at 3:15 cst while the cash index closes at 3:00 cst. any PREM delivered after 3:00 cst is wrong.


Rule # 1

Look at the right part of the bar. Use a 1 minute chart. The high of the S & P 500 FUTURES (spoos) corresponds to the high of the prem. The low of the spoos corresponds to the low of the prem.

Rule # 2

When ever there is a new high for the day on the prem, it means one of two things. Either the prem is going higher or the spoos are going higher or both. When ever there is a new low on the prem, either the prem is going lower or the spoos are going lower or both.

This may seem ambiguous, but its just a fact of observation. Consider these scenarios.

The prem hits a new high. Read the high of the spoos. If the spoos did not go any higher before they continued to short, a price point was created. When the spoos turn, they will likely rally right back to the price associated with the last new high on the prem and likely go higher.

The prem hits a new low. Read the low of the spoos. If the spoos went no lower before they began to rally, a price point was created. If the spoos turn and rally up a bit, likely they will short again and return right back to the price associated with the last new low on the prem and probably go lower.

The spoos hit a new low. The prem hits a new high (rare). The sell off is very likely over.


The prem hits a new high. Read the high of the spoos. If the spoos did not go any higher before they fall back, a price point was created. When the spoos turn, they will likely rally right back to the price associated with the last new high on the prem and probably go higher.

The prem hits a new low. Read the low of the spoos. If the spoos went no lower before they began to rally, a price point was created. If the spoos turn and rally up further, likely they will short and return right back to the price associated with the last new low on the prem and probably go lower.

The spoos hit a new high. The prem his a new low (rare). The rally is very likely over.

Rule # 3

New highs or lows on the spoos should be preceded by new highs or lows on the prem. If they are not, the market is poised to turn.

Reading the PREM is not a strategy per se. It is a leading indicator and can regularly predict where the spoos are going to go before they get there, especially when the spoos appear to be doing just the opposite.

New highs and lows on the prem are by themselves fairly decent indications of large institutional program trading going on, without necessarily knowing predetermined buy sell execution levels.

If the program trading is going on you best be sure not to trade in the opposition direction.

Our trading strategy takes these and other factors in to account thus producing very accurate and timely trades. We invite you to consider our results and training course to help you become a more effective trader.

What is Zero Debt? An Explanation and Tips For Attaining Zero Debt

Zero debt is a situation that means financial freedom for an individual. Freedom from any kind of outside financing like a loan, debt, or debt consolidation; in other words it just means that the individual is free from any financial obligations to third parties.

People obtain loans from financial institutions and banks to meet their urgent financial needs. But at some point they fail to pay the monthly sum due and hence, become debtors. Their debt keeps on increasing until they finally file for bankruptcy. This is a permanent black mark on their profile and wherever they might go for any form of help, it will rear its ugly head. So getting zero debt is a major issue for those who are into debt and debt consolidation.

So what determines zero debt? It is determined by the credit ratio. Assets minus liabilities will show if there is a surplus or deficit in your financial status. If your assets are higher than the liabilities, then you're debt free – ie, you have zero debt. But, when the latter is higher than the former, then the problem of debt and debt consolidation starts. So, how to maintain a zero balance? By following simple but effective steps you can become be 'zero debt'.

* Controlled spending: make a note of the things you urgently need and control the urge to spend unnecessarily on things that you might go without. Divide your monthly income thus: necessity, needs, investment, and savings. What you need most is necessity; secondary needs (which you may or may not need very specifically) are needs. An investment is in shares, bonds or real estate. Savings is what you will make use of in your future.

Zero debt is all about money management. Check the usage of credit cards: to maintain a zero balance always be cautious about your credit card usage. Eliminate the urge to swipe it wherever you need to: this is what will land you in deep financial trouble later. So it is best to minimize the credit card usage to maintain zero debt.

* Debt consolidation: If you are in debt or trying to repay a loan, always pay the monthly balance without fail or try to extend the repayment period so that the monthly stress will become less. Debt consolidation is another option which you can discuss with your financiers. Discuss a debt elimination plan with various companies and try to get the best debt consolidation possible for zero debt.

* Plan a monthly budget: planning a budget can lead to your having zero debt. Allocate how much you can spend on food, transport, clothing, entertainment, etc, and stick to these limits. Following a more disciplined approach will serve as great milestones to keep you debt free.

Zero debt is all about planning and managing the resources available. Making wise financial decisions can make keep you in zero debt. Get the help of debt consolidators or financial consultants to guide you to the right track which will give you zero debt and which means complete financial freedom from debt.